Reading

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS

A company often becomes involved in international trade by exchanging goods or services with another country-importing raw materials it may need for production or exporting finished products to a foreign market. Establishing these trade relationships is the first step in the development of a multinational business. At this stage, however the corporation’s emphasis is still on the domestic market. As trade expands, the corporation’s dealing with companies or people outside the “home country” of that corporation increase.

The corporation then begins to view the whole world as a base for production and marketing operations. The next step in the development of a multinational business is focusing on the world market. The company may establish a foreign assembly plant, engage in contract manufacturing, or build a foreign manufacturing company or subsidiary. Therefore, a multinational corporation is a company that is primarily based in one country and has production and marketing activities in foreign countries.

Since World War II, multinational corporations have grown rapidly. The names and products of many of the multinational have become well-known in the world marketplace: International Business Machines (IBM), Royal Dutch Shell, Panasonic, Coca-Cola, and Volkwagen. Coca-Cola, for example, now has operations in more then 180 countries.

A multinational corporation operates in a complex business environment. Cultural, social, economic, political, and technological system vary from country to country. In order to operate successfully, a multinational company needs a basic understanding and appreciation of the foreign business environment.

Comprehension

A. Answer the following questions about multinationals. Questions with asteris (*) cannot be answered directly from the text.

1. What is the first step in the development of a multinational business?
The first step (it) is establishing the trade relationship with another country.

2. Where is the comapany’s emphasis when it is simply trading with other countries?
The companies emphasis (it) is still on the domestic market.

3. What market does a multinational corporation focus on?
A multinational corporation (it) focuses on the world market.

4. A company may establish its manufacturing operations in foreign countries? What are three forms that these operations may take?
The three forms (they) are: It may establish a foreign assembly plant, engage in contract manufacturing, and build a foreign manufacturing company or a subsidiary.

5. What is a multinational corporation?
A multinational corporation (it) is a company that is primary based in one country and has production and marketing activities in foreign countries.

6  When have multinationals grown rapidly? *Why do you think they have experienced this period of rapid growth?
Multinationals (they) have grown rapidly since World War II. Because during the war many countries knew what recurces are scarce or abundant in other countries.

7. *What are some products that are produced by the following multinational corporations: IBM, Coca-Cola, Panasonic, Shell, and Volkswagen?
IBM: International Business Machines, Royal Dutch Shell oil, Panasonic electronic, Coca-Cola softdrink, Volkswagen automobiles.

8. *Why does a multinational corporation operate in a more complex business environment than a domestic company?
Because a multinational corporation focuses on the world market, and each country has its own system: culturally, economically, politically and technologically. Where as a domestic company only operates in one country which its system its already familiar.

9. *What are some of the social and political factors that can vary from country to country?
Socially: In Japan life time employment system is applied, where as in Indonesia contract system employment is used.
Politically: Thailand is monarchism, Indonesia is democratic.

10.Why does a multinational corporation need a basic understanding of foreign business environments? *How can a multinational gain this understanding?
In order to operate successfully. This understanding can be gained through market research.

B. Determine which of the following statement are true and which are false. Then put T or F in the blanks. Rewrite false statements to make them true.

1. [T] Multinaltional corporations have grown rapidly since 1945.

2. [F] Any company engaged in international trade is a multinational business.

3. [T] In order to operate successfully, a multinational company needs to be aware of national and international business environments

4. [F] A multinational corporation focuses on its “home country,” or domestic market.

5. [F] A multinational company does not establish factories in foreign countries.

Vocabulary Exercises

A. Write down any terms that you did not understand in the reading. Find each term in the reading, look at its context, and try to figure out the meaning. Discuss these terms with your classmates.

B. Look at the terms in the left-hand colomn and find the correct synonyms or definitions in the right-hand colomn. Copy the corresponding letters in the blanks.

1. [j] corporation (line 5)              a. chiefly; principally

2. [e] expand (line 6)                    b. function in; work in

3. [g] view ( line 8 )                    c. change

4. [i] stage (line 5)                       d. a company having more than half of its stock owned by another company

5. [a] primarily (line 13)               e. increase the dimensions of

6. [h] base ( line 8 )                     f. growth; expansion

7. [c] vary (line 21)                     g. see; look at

8. [d] subsidiary (line 21)             h. foundation

9. [b] operate in (line 20)             i. a step in development

10.[f] development (line 4)           j. a type of business organization formed by an association of stockholders

C.Fill in the blanks in the following paragraph with the most appropriate terms form the list.

base operate in appreciation of expands

vary corporation development subsidiary

staged involved in view relationship

During the development of a corporation, the organizational structure may vary over time and pass through a number of stages . As the corporation grows, it expands its operations. It might become involved in setting up a subsidiary . Although the corporation still has a primary or “home base ,” establishment of a subsidiary allow the company to enter into new relationship with a view toward increasing its production and marketing capabilities.

Text Analysis

Look at the reading to answer these questions.

1.What does each of the following refer to?

LINES          WORDS           REFERENTS

2                      it                 a company
5                     this               stage first step
17                  IBM             International Business Machine

2.Match the connective words or phrases with the appropriate functions.

[c] however (line 5)                         a. summarizing
[d] then ( line 8 )                             b. illustrating
[a] therefore (line 12)                      c. contrasting
[b] for example (line 18)                  d. sequencing information

3.Summarize the two general steps in the development of a multinational corporation.
a. establishing these trade relationship. (line 3-5)
b. focusing on the world market. (line 8-10)

4.Sometimes the definition of a term takes this form:
a controls the
A restrictive trade law → is → law → that → number of goods
imported or exported
that term being defined → verb to be → class→ which → definition

This type of definition is known as a formal definition. In a formal definition the term or word being defined occurs first. It is followed by the verb to be (usually is ar are). Next the class states the general group that the term belongs to:

TERMS                                                    CLASSES

multinational corporation                 company
typewriter                                            business machine
absolute advantage                          theory of specialization

After the class, either that or which is used. Finally, the definition itself includes information distinguishing this term other members of its class.

Write formal definitions for multinational corporation (page 56), corporation (page 57), and subsidiary (page 57).
a. A multinational corporation is a company that is primatily based in one country and has production and marketing activities in foreign countries.

5.Formal definitions may be shortened to a more general form, which includes less information. This is often called a semiformal definition. The class, that or which, and the verb to be are omitted.

A restrictive trade law → controls → the number of goods imported or exported

Term being defined → verb → definition

Change the formal definition from the previous exercise into semiformal definitions.
a A multinational corporation is primatily based in one country and has production and marketing activities in foreign countries.

TENSES

Pr – Present; Ps-Past; S-Simple; C-Continuous; F-Future; Pf-Perfect

1. Pr.S – He writes many letters everyday. (habitual action)

2. Ps.S – He wrote m.1 yesterday. (occurred in the past)

3. Pr.C – It is writing m.1 now. (is occurring right now)

4. Ps.C – He was writing m.1 when it rained yesterday. (two actions in the past).

5. Pr.F – He will write m.1 tomorrow. (will happen in the future).

6. Ps.F – He would write m.1 yesterday, but he didn’t have time.

7. Pr.Pf – He has written m.1 already (has just happened now).

8. Ps.Pf – He had written m.1 when it rained yesterday. (two actions in the past)

9. Pr.Fc – He will be writing m.1 when you visit him tomorrow. (in the future)

10.Ps.Fc – He would be writing m.1 when you visited him yesterday. (in the past)

11.Pr.FPf – He will have written m.1 when you come tomorrow (in the future)

12.Ps.FPf – He would have written m.1 when you come yesterday. (in the past)

13.Pr.Pfc – He has been writing m.1 for two days until now. (continuosly from past until now).

14.Ps.Pfc – He had been writting m.1 for two days until yesterday (continuosly from past to past)

15.Pr.Fpf.C – He will have been writing m.1 for two days will tomorrow. (until in the future)

16.Pr.F.Pfc – He would have been writing m.1 for two days until yesterday. (until in the past)

———SELESAI——–